How much more likely is an unvaccinated person to become hospitalized from COVID-19 than someone who is fully vaccinated and boosted?
Data from the recent Omicron variant surge showed that adults who were age 50 to 64 years, unvaccinated, and had a COVID-19 infection were 45 times more likely to be hospitalized than those who were fully vaccinated and had received one booster.
If I’ve already had COVID-19, do I still need to get the vaccine in order to be protected from severe illness, hospitalization or death?
Yes. Extensive scientific evidence shows that being fully vaccinated, and receiving necessary boosters, is the best protection against getting COVID-19, whether you have already had the virus or not. Experts do not yet know how long natural immunity protects you. Further, vaccination provides a higher level of immunity than infection. Finally, getting vaccinated also protects others by reducing the spread of the virus.
Does being fully vaccinated protect me against Long Haul COVID?
Yes. Between 10 and 30 percent of people who have had a COVID-19 infection will develop Long Haul COVID (or Long COVID). This includes people who had mild or asymptomatic infections. Long COVID can result in a range of physical and mental symptoms which present four to 8 weeks after acute infection. There are a range of symptoms because COVID-19 impacts all organ systems, including the brain. These symptoms can be debilitating in some people. Researchers are working to better understand Long Haul COVID.
Some people get COVID-19 even after being fully vaccinated. Does this mean it is not worth getting vaccinated or boosted?
No. Even though people may experience a breakthrough infection, vaccination greatly reduces the risk of severe illness, hospitalization and death, as well as Long COVID.
Will there continue to be new variants of coronavirus?
Yes. Variants are expected because viruses constantly change through mutation. Sometimes new variants emerge and disappear. Other times, new variants persist. All variants of the virus that causes COVID-19 are being tracked in the United States and globally during this pandemic. The best way to slow the emergence of new variants is to reduce the spread of infection by taking measures to protect yourself, including getting fully vaccinated and receiving recommended boosters.
Why are boosters needed?
Boosters are needed because the effectiveness of the vaccines decline over time. If coronavirus is still spreading, and/or if new variants begin circulating, the vaccines need to be “boosted” to provide continued protection.
How many times should people expect to have to get boosters, and will vaccines be available to do this?
Vaccine experts do not know yet how many more boosters will be needed to address COVID-19. But vaccine researchers and manufacturers are monitoring this closely and prepared to develop and roll out any necessary boosters.
Do the vaccines cause infertility and/or disrupt menstrual cycles?
No. There is no evidence the vaccines cause infertility or disrupt menstrual cycles. However, COVID-19 infections can impact menstruation.
Do the vaccines alter human DNA?
No. COVID-19 Vaccines do not change or interact with your DNA in any way.
The COVID-19 vaccines are designed to help your body’s immune system fight the coronavirus. The messenger RNA (mRNA) does enter cells, but not the nucleus of the cells where DNA resides. The mRNA causes the cell to make protein to stimulate the immune system, and then it quickly breaks down—without affecting your DNA.
Are the vaccines safe for pregnant people?
Yes. All currently approved COVID-19 vaccines have been recommended for use by people who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or might become pregnant in the future. Indeed, not getting vaccinated, and consequently getting COVID-19, poses a serious risk to the pregnancy and the mother’s health. None of the vaccines cause infection, including in pregnant people or their babies. Data from safety monitoring systems did not find any safety concerns for pregnant people who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine late in pregnancy, or for their babies. Scientists have not found an increased risk for miscarriage among people who received an mRNA vaccine just before and during early pregnancy (before 20 weeks of pregnancy). Vaccination of pregnant people builds antibodies that might protect their baby.
Are children at risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19, and should they be vaccinated?
Yes. Although children and youth tend to fare better than older adults, the disease still affects them. Hundreds of children have died since the start of the pandemic, and thousands have been hospitalized. Thousands have developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome, which effects multiple organ systems, including the heart. Also, COVID has forced many children to miss playdates, time with grandparents, school, and activities. Fully vaccinating children is a key measure in protecting them and those around them.
Is it safer for my child to get COVID-19 than to get the vaccine?
No. the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the known and potential risks. Getting vaccinated can protect your child from getting COVID-19. It can also protect your child from severe disease, hospitalizations, or developing long-term complications if they do get COVID-19. In the vaccine clinical trials that were conducted on thousands of children, side effects were mild and did not have any lasting effects. Some children will not have any side effects and serious side effects are rare.
The messenger RNA (mRNA) technology used to make the COVID-19 vaccine seems like it is untested. Is it safe?
Yes. The mRNA technology behind the new coronavirus vaccines has been in development for almost 20 years. Vaccine makers created the technology to help them respond quickly to a new pandemic illness, such as COVID-19.
Do the vaccines contain microchips and/or tracking devices, or fetal tissue?
No. Vaccines are developed to fight against disease and not to track your movement. Vaccines work by stimulating your immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like it would if you were exposed to the disease. After getting vaccinated, you develop immunity to that disease, without having to get the disease first.
Is there sufficient safety monitoring?
Yes. COVID-19 vaccines are being held to the same high safety standards as other routine vaccines. After any vaccines are authorized and in use, both FDA and CDC continue to monitor their safety. Existing systems have been scaled up and can rapidly detect possible vaccine safety problems. These include:
- V-safe— A new smartphone-based, after-vaccination health checker for people who receive COVID-19 vaccines. V-safe uses text messaging and web surveys from CDC to check in with vaccine recipients after vaccination.
- Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)— The national system that collects reports from healthcare professionals, vaccine manufacturers, and the public of health problems that happen after vaccination.
Reports of health problems that have unusual patterns are followed up with specific studies.
The vaccines were developed quickly. Were they properly tested?
Yes. Researchers were able to fast-track these vaccines because they had already made progress developing vaccines for other types of coronaviruses, such as the 2003 SARS epidemic and the 2012 MERS outbreak. Researchers also used existing clinical trial networks to quickly conduct COVID-19 vaccine trials. Another critical factor has been the rapid investment in vaccine manufacturing, while research was being performed to prove vaccine effectiveness and safety.
CDC: Myths and Facts about COVID-19 Vaccines
CDC: Frequently Asked Questions about COVID-19 Vaccination in Children
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; NASW Webinar: COVID-19 Vaccination Through a Social Work Lens: Myths and Facts; and, Mona Gahunia, D.O., Kaiser Permanente.
COVID-19 Vaccination through a Social Work Lens: Myths and Facts: